Thermotherapy involves the application of Heat or Cold (Cryotherapy) in order to change the Intra-articular, Core temperature and Cutaneous of soft tissue resulting in the improvement of certain conditions. Cryotherapy (cold) and Thermotherapy (Heat) are useful for the treatment of Musculoskeletal injuries and Soft Tissue injuries. Use of Ice Or Heat as a therapeutic intervention decreases pain in Joints, Muscles and Soft Tissues as they have a reverse effect on Tissue Metabolism, Blood Flow, Inflammation and Edema. Thermotherapy can be used as a rehabilitation facility at home as well. Cold Therapy reduces inflammation by decreasing blood flow due to contraction in Blood Vessels. Hot Therapy promotes blood flow due to expansion in Blood Vessels and helps in muscle relaxation due to expansion.


The aim of Thermotherapy is to alter the tissue temperature of the targeted area to induce a desired Biological response. Majority of them are designed to deliver Thermal Therapy to a target tissue volume with minimum impact on surrounding tissues.


The increase in the Temperature of the Skin/Soft Tissue leads to the increase in the blood flow by Vasodilatation. Heat basically increases the oxygen uptake thus increasing Tissue Healing. It also increases the Metabolic rate, Tissue extensibility, activity of destructive Enzymes and the Catabolic rate.


By decreasing the temperature of Skin/Soft Tissue the blood flow decreases by Vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels). But it is afterwards followed by Vasodilatation which prevents it against Hypoxic (absence of enough oxygen) damage. Cold therapy basically decreases the amount of blood flow delivered to an area thus reducing Swelling. It further helps in reducing muscle spasm and decreases metabolic rate by limiting the oxygen flow to cells.
Alternating Heat and Cold Therapy may help reduce exercise-induced muscle pain.


HEAT: Heating of tissues can be achieved using Hot Packs, Wax Baths, Towels, Sun lights, Saunas, Heat wraps, Steam Baths/Rooms. We can also get the heat in deeper tissues through Electrotherapy (Ultrasound). Exercise in warm water is an effective treatment with pain relief effect for patients with Neurological and Musculoskeletal problems. The warmth enhances the blood flow and muscle relaxation and also relieves the pain by reducing peripheral edema.
Heat Treatment can be useful in cases of:
COLD:Cooling is achieved using Ice Packs, Ice Baths, Cooling Gel Packs, Cold Air and Sprays. Cold therapy reduces the swelling and increases range of motion.
Cold Treatment can be useful in cases of: